A wounds are the type of injuries which happens relatively quickly in which skin is torn, cut, or punctured (an open wound), or where blunt force trauma causes a contusion (a closed wound). In pathology, it specifically refers to a sharp injury which damages the dermis of the skin.
According to level of contamination, a wound can be classified as:
- Clean wound – made under sterile conditions where there are no organisms present, and the skin is likely to heal without complications.
- Contaminated wound – usually resulting from accidental injury; there are pathogenic organisms and foreign bodies in the wound.
- Infected wound – the wound has pathogenic organisms present and multiplying, exhibiting clinical signs of infection (yellow appearance, soreness, redness, oozing pus).
- Colonized wound – a chronic situation, containing pathogenic organisms, difficult to heal (i.e. bedsore).
According to the structural classification, there is two types of wounds ie. Open and Closed.
Open wounds are classified according to the object that caused the wound:
- Incisions or incised wounds – caused by a clean, sharp-edged object such as a knife, razor, or glass splinter.
- Lacerations – irregular tear-like wounds caused by some blunt trauma. Lacerations and incisions may appear linear (regular) or stellate (irregular). The term laceration is commonly misused in reference to incisions.
- Abrasions (grazes) – superficial wounds in which the topmost layer of the skin (the epidermis) is scraped off. Abrasions are often caused by a sliding fall onto a rough surface.
- Avulsions – injuries in which a body structure is forcibly detached from its normal point of insertion. A type of amputation where the extremity is pulled off rather than cut off.
- Puncture wounds – caused by an object puncturing the skin, such as a splinter, nail or needle.
- Penetration wounds – caused by an object such as a knife entering and coming out from the skin.
- Gunshot wounds – caused by a bullet or similar projectile driving into or through the body. There may be two wounds, one at the site of entry and one at the site of exit, generally referred to as a “through-and-through.”
Closed wounds have fewer categories, but are just as dangerous as open wounds:
- Hematomas (or blood tumor) – caused by damage to a blood vessel that in turn causes blood to collect under the skin.
- Hematomas that originate from internal blood vessel pathology are petechiae, purpura, and ecchymosis. The different classifications are based on size.
- Hematomas that originate from an external source of trauma are contusions, also commonly called bruises.
- Crush injury – caused by a great or extreme amount of force applied over a long period of time.
Complications of Wound
a. Bleeding b. Infection
First Aid for Bleeding Wounds
- Elevation of Injured part & Direct pressure application – Clean your hands well before starts first aid to prevent from infection. Elevate the wound above the heart level will make decrease the speed of blood circulation there. And apply firm pressure with a clean compress (such as a clean, heavy gauze pad, washcloth, T-shirt, or sock) directly on the wound. Call out for someone to get help. Do not remove a pad that is soaked through with blood. If blood soaks through, place another pad on top of the soaked one and continue applying direct pressure.
- Application of pressure over pressure points – If severe bleeding does not stop with direct pressure and elevation, apply direct pressure to an artery. Use direct pressure on an artery along with elevation and direct pressure on the wound. When you apply pressure to an artery, you stop bleeding by pushing the artery against bone. Press down firmly on the artery between the bleeding site and the heart. If there is severe bleeding, also apply firm pressure directly to the bleeding site. To check if bleeding has stopped, release your fingers slowly from the pressure point, but do not release pressure at the bleeding site. If bleeding continues, continue to apply pressure to the artery. Continue until the bleeding stops or until help arrives. After bleeding stops, do not continue to apply pressure
to an artery for longer than 5 minutes.
- Immobilization of Injured part & Dressing
Source: Wikipedia, health.harvard.edu, pinterest